How has vehicle resilience developed?
During the 1980s, basic digital technologies started to appear in vehicle safety features, such as airbags, and from this the first discussions around functional safety standards began. At this time, a key focus was the issue of radiofrequency interference. This resulted in the UN ECE establishing a regulation to set the first limits for vehicle radiofrequency emissions, which were a significant source of disruption for radio and TV, and for MIRA, work began on an electromagnetic environment survey that investigated the levels that might be experienced in the operational environment.
As the decades progressed so did the technologies. The ’90s saw the introduction of microprocessor technology and subsequently electronic control systems became increasingly prevalent in vehicles. So, the EU directive 95/54/EC set-out requirements that would ensure that vehicles and their systems would be resistant to external electromagnetic disturbances, as well as “good neighbours” in terms of electromagnetic emissions. During this time, there was also growing concern around the electromagnetic environment and the potential effects of human exposure to EMF. Therefore, the EU recommended limits on general public exposure to electromagnetic fields, and later mandated occupational exposure limits. Increasing vehicle electrification and wireless connectivity now make occupant EMF exposure a consideration in vehicle development.
As we move into more recent years, hands-free technologies such as park assist, have begun to be more commonplace in vehicles, along with the significant challenges around cybersecurity and the threat of vehicle systems being vulnerable to hacking and external threats. As cybersecurity grows in importance, new UN ECE regulations and standards such as ISO/SAE 21434 have been developed. These recognise the need for more rigorous engineering solutions and the corresponding assurance activities that support building public trust in modern connected and automated vehicles.