Simulation of electromagnetic field exposure.
Electromagnetic fields have established acute and undesirable physiological effects on body tissues that may be exacerbated by passive metallic implants, and may also present an EMC threat to active medical devices (both body-worn and implanted). Avoiding such issues minimizes the potential need for costly rework in the later stages of vehicle development when prototypes become available and ensures that brand value and market share are not damaged by adverse publicity.
Potential sources of electromagnetic field exposure in the automotive environment include:
- Traction batteries
- High-voltage power cables
- Wireless power transfer systems
- Vehicle-mounted transmitters
- On-board personal transmitters
- Nearby transmitters
The logical first step is to use simulation to assess the likely field environment and to predict the impact of possible mitigation strategies in order to minimize the risk of excessive field exposure at the design stage.
Where simulations (or measurements) indicate that the field environment is unlikely to comply with recommended field limits then anatomically detailed human models may also be included in numerical simulations in order to assess compliance with limits on in-body quantities such as specific absorption rate (SAR, 100 kHz to 10 GHz) or induced internal electric field (1 Hz to 10 MHz).
For the assessment of in-body quantities, homogenous or inhomogeneous human simulants may be used depending on the frequencies and application of interest.
Non-automotive applications investigated have included body-worn antennas.